Greenhouses are controlled environments used for cultivating plants, providing shelter from external weather while allowing for tailored conditions. However, traditional greenhouse management relies heavily on manual intervention for tasks like temperature, irrigation, and ventilation, which can be time-consuming and error-prone. Designing an automatic system for greenhouses would enhance efficiency by precisely regulating factors like temperature, humidity, and soil moisture, leading to optimized plant growth, resource conservation, reduced labor demands, and improved crop yields.
Microprocessors and microcontrollers are used to operate embedded systems in a variety of devices, including cars, robotics, office equipment, and household appliances and the microcontroller used to design this system is a NodeMCU ESP8266.
The major goal is to build a low-cost Smart Greenhouse Automation System that can regulate the light and water the plants on its own as needed with the objective of collecting, analyzing, and processing data in order to improve production parameters, increase output, and prevent problems like sicknesses in plants. This will be accomplished by gathering data from sensors and using a few actuators to act independently on the environment around the plants.
The basic system is outlined in this hackster, which is built on the concept of an interconnected, Smart Greenhouse Automation System and makes use of essentially the same technology. It will be linked to Blynk app so that it can access your data right on your mobile device.Soil Moisture Sensor & Water Pump Control
(Faizan Samdani - TP062706)
The soil watering system of the greenhouse uses a soil moisture sensor and a submersible water pump to control the moisture level of the soil. In this system, the soil moisture sensor collects the moisture percentage of the soil once every 5 seconds, and the water pump is activated based on the moisture threshold. If moisture percentage of the soil is more than 60%, the water pump is off but if the moisture percentage is less than 60%, the water pump is activated by a relay for 500 ms.
The sensor used in this system is a YL-69 and YL-38 soil moisture sensor. The probes of the sensor are buried in the soil and connected to the module board. The Vcc of the moisture sensor is connected to a digital pin on the NodeMCU ESP8266, and its done to control the activation of the sensor. The analog pin of the sensor is first connected to a diode and then to the analog pin of the ESP8266. A single channel relay is used to control the water pump and the pump is powered by 3x AA Batteries that are 1.5V each, and both the pump and the battery pack are connected to the normally open (NO) port of the relay.
Temperature and Humidity Sensor & Fan Control
Soil Moisture Sensor & Water Pump Control Circuit
(Andrei Har Ee Cheng - TP057971)
The temperature and humidity are a significant variable for the livelihood of plants, as they simulate the environment and ambience for the plant. As such, these two variables are measured by using the DHT-11 sensor, which collects data for the temperature and moisture of the environment. The DHT-11 was placed inside the greenhouse along with the plant to ensure that the data gathered is accurate to the conditions surrounding the plant. The DHT-11 connects to the NodeMCU by connecting VCC to the 3V3 pin and connecting DATA to D8.
To control these variables, a fan was installed into the greenhouse as a means of intaking air to control the temperature and humidity. The fan is programmed to turn on when certain conditions are met, which in this case are if either the temperature exceeds 30 degrees celsius or if the humidity exceeds 85%. The fan is connected to a 2-channel relay, which is connected to 4xAA batteries that power the fan through the relay.
Light Intensity Sensor & LED Lighting Control
Temperature and Humidity Sensor & Fan Control Circuit
(Muhammad Husnain Zahid - TP058676)
A Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) will be used to measure the light intensity. As soon as the light intensity drops below 25%, the LDR will detect it. When the light intensity falls below a threshold—set at 25%—the high intensity LED strip will switch on for a predetermined period of time, and by doing this, we will be able to provide the plants the ideal length of light each day, significantly accelerating development while using the least amount of energy.
Wi-Fi Connectivity & GUI Dashboard
Light Intensity Sensor & LED Lighting Control Circuit
(Anson Yap Ming Wei - TP059675)
Wi-Fi Connectivity & Graphical Dashboard is made possible between Arduino and Blynk App. The smart greenhouse automated system consist a few different sensors, each sensor has different ports. These different ports are then coded and connected with the Blynk app which allows the user to monitor the plant remotely through Wi-Fi connectivity. The following figure shows the graphical user interface of the Blynk app.
Blynk App Graphical User Interface
The above is the graphical user interface for the Blynk app. The GUI displays data of surrounding temperature (C), surrounding humidity (%), ambient light intensity (%), soil moisture (%), state of the fan (ON/OFF), state of the pump (ON/OFF), and state of the lights (ON/OFF). For example, if user observes the soil moisture is too low, the pump will run at intervals to make sure the soil moisture is moist again.
Different sensors transmit data in different ports, so it was possible to assign different ports of the data collected into the Blynk app to process. This it converted the digital signals into viewable data for the user.Final Design
Smart Greenhouse Automation System Circuit